Sea state monitoring through X-band marine radars

MonitMareAccording to a recent study of the European Spatial Agency (ESA) in the last two decades more than 200 oil tankers and ship containers sunk as a result of extreme sea conditions and anomalous waves, leading to loss of human lives and environmental disasters. However, tthe scientific research and the technological innovation are opening new horizons about the possibility to monitor sea state through X-band marine radar systems, which are commonly installed on large vessels and at the port authority sites.

As a matter of fact, the smart analysis of the radar echoes arising from the sea surface and received by such systems allows us to get useful information about the wave motion. Moreover, IREA Researchers developed an innovative strategy to estimate both the sea surface currents and the bathymetry, which can be applied in both the terrestrial contexts (coastal monitoring, meteorology, operations support to search and rescue) and in the offshore scenarios (aid to navigation, safety of offshore platforms). Through the smart processing of the signal that is commonly regarded as a disturbance component (clutter) in navigation applications, it is possible to obtain information on the spatial and temporal behaviour of the wave motion. This offers an appealing alternative to the currently adopted methods for the detection of the sea state, such as the ondametric buoys and the HF radars, with the advantage of being extremely easy to install, operate, maintain, and, not least, requiring comparatively low installation and management costs.

This research activity led to the foundation of Remocean S.r.l., which is a Spin-off company of the Italian Research Council.

Additional Info

G. Ludeno, A. Orlandi, C. Lugni, C. Brandini, F. Soldovieri, F. Serafino, “X-band marine radar system for high speed navigation purposes: a test case on a cruise ship”, Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, IEEE, 2014, Page(s): 244-248


G. Ludeno, S. Flampouris, C.Lugni, F.Soldovieri, F. Serafino ,“A novel approach based on marine radar data analysis for high resolution bathymetry map generation”, Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, IEEE, 2014, Page(s): 234-238


F. Serafino, G. Ludeno, D. Arturi, C. Lugni, A. Natale, F. Soldovieri “Remocean: a marine radar as a safety tool for offshore platforms”, EGU2013, Vienna,8-12 April 2013


F. Serafino, G. Ludeno, C.Lugni, S. Flampouris, A.Natale, D.Arturi, F. Soldovieri, “Generation of bathymetric maps with high resolution thRough the analysis of Nautical X-Band Radar images”, IGARSS13, Melbourne (Australia), 22-27 Luglio 2013


F. Serafino, G. Ludeno, C. Lugni ,A. Natale, D.Arturi , C. Brandini , F. Soldovieri, “Diffracted waves from the aground Costa Concordia cruise and detected by the Remocean system”, IGARSS13, Melbourne (Australia), 22-27 Luglio 2013


Serafino, F.; Lugni, C.; Ludeno, G.; Arturi, D.; Uttieri, M.; Buonocore, B.; Zambianchi, E.; Budillon, G.; Soldovieri, F.; , "REMOCEAN: A Flexible X-Band Radar System for Sea-State Monitoring and Surface Current Estimation," Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, IEEE ,September 2012, Volume 9, Number 5, Page(s): 822-826


G. Ludeno, F.Soldovieri, F.Serafino, ”Sea state monitoring from marine X-band radar data as a linear inversion”, Giornate Scientifiche di Ateneo della Seconda Università di Napoli 2012 (GSA12), Caserta, 12-13 Luglio 2012


G. Ludeno,C. Lugni,A. Orlandi,F. Soldovieri,F. Serafino; “Hydrodynamic parameters estimation via X-Band radar images analysis: the test case of a high speed vessel”, Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2012 IEEE International, Page(s):2829-2832


Francesco Serafino, Giovanni Ludeno, Stylianos Flampouris, Francesco Soldovieri, “Analysis of Nautical X-Band Radar Images for the generation of Bathymetric Map by the NSP Method”, IGARSS12, Monaco, 22-27 Luglio 2012

F. Serafino, C. Lugni Claudio; J.C Nieto Borge et al., “A Simple Strategy to Mitigate the Aliasing Effect in X-band Marine Radar Data: Numerical Results for a 2D Case”, Sensors , vol.11, pp.1009-1027, 2011.

F. Serafino, C. Lugni, and F. Soldovieri, “A novel strategy for the surface current determination from marine X-band radar data”, IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol.7 n.2, pp. 231-235, 2010.

F. Serafino, C. Lugni, J. Carlos Nieto Borge, V. Zamparelli, F. Soldovieri,  "Bathymetry Determination via X-Band Radar Data: A New Strategy and Numerical Results", Sensors, vol.10, n.7, pp.6522-6534, 2010.

F. Serafino, C. Lugni, and F. Soldovieri, “Sea Surface Currents Estimation via X-band Marine Radar Images Sequences acquired from a moving vessel”, OceanSAR 2009, 7-11 September 2009, Herrsching, Germany.

F. Serafino, Francesco Soldovieri and Claudio Lugni “Aliasing effect removal in sea height reconstruction by X-band radar images acquired from a moving vessel”, OceanSAR 2009, 7- 11 September 2009, Herrsching, Germany.

F. Serafino, F. Soldovieri, C. Lugni, "Sea-State Monitoring via X-band Marine Radar Images Sequences: a new Approach for an Accurate Surface Currents Estimation”, OMAE 2009, Honolulu, Hawaii, 31 May - 5 June, 2009.

F. Serafino, C. Lugni, F. Raffa, F. Soldovieri, “Ocean Surface Current Determination from Marine X-band Radar Data and Wave Height Reconstruction”, EGU, 19 – 24 April 2009, Vienna, Austria.

F. Serafino, C. Lugni, and F. Soldovieri, “Sea Topography reconstruction from X-band radar images”, Advances in Geosciences, vol. 19, pp 83-86, 2008.


Guardia di Finanza

Italian Coast Guard

Consilium Marine SRL

Jose’ Carlos Nieto Borge

Linköping University

Lamma Toscana

CNR-IAMC Institute for Coastal Marine Environment  

CNR-ISMAR Institute of Marine Sciences 

University of Salerno

University Parthenope

Seconda Università di Napoli (SUN)

Centre for Materials and Coastal Research (GKSS)

NATO - CMRE (Centre for Maritime Research & Experimentation)

Almanacco della Scienza CNR, n. 8 - 14 luglio 2010
Il, 29 maggio 2010